Incremental peritoneal dialysis allows to reduce the time spent for dialysis, glucose exposure, economic cost, plastic waste and water consumption



Incremental peritoneal dialysis (incPD) as the initial PD strategy represents a convenient and resource-sparing approach, but its impact on patient, healthcare and environment has not been thoroughly evaluated.


This study includes 147 patients who started incPD at our institution between 1st January, 2009 and 31st December, 2021. Adequacy measures, peritoneal permeability parameters, peritonitis episodes, hospitalizations and increase in CAPD dose prescriptions were recorded. The savings related to cost, patient glucose exposure, time needed to perform dialysis, plastic waste, and water usage were compared to full-dose PD treatment.


During the study follow-up 11.9% of the patients transitioned from incremental to full dose PD. Patient cumulative probability of remaining on PD at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months was 87.6, 65.4, 46.1, 30.1 and 17.5%, respectively. The median transition time from 1 to 2 exchanges, from 2 to 3 and 3 to 4 exchanges were 5, 9 and 11.8 months, respectively. Compared to full dose PD, 1, 2, and 3 exchanges per day led to reduction in glucose exposure of 20.4, 14.8 or 8.3 kg/patient-year, free lifetime gain of 18.1, 13.1 or 7.4 day/patient-year, a decrease in cost of 8700, 6300 or 3540 €/patient-year, a reduction in plastic waste of 139.2, 100.8 or 56.6 kg/patient-year, and a decline in water use of 25,056, 18,144 or 10,196 L/patient-year.


In comparison with full-dose PD, incPD allows to reduce the time spent for managing dialysis, glucose exposure, economic cost, plastic waste, and water consumption.

Graphical abstract