Evolution of Treatment for Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

In 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that more than 1 in 7 (15%) adults in the United States have chronic kidney disease (CKD).1 A common comorbidity of CKD is anemia. The type of anemia seen in patients with CKD is normocytic, normochromic, and hypoproliferative.2 Early studies showed that the main cause for CKD anemia was from erythropoietin (EPO) deficiency. Damaged kidneys, as seen in CKD, do not produce enough EPO, resulting in decreased production of red blood cells by the bone marrow.