Hypertension and cardiovascular risk factor management in a multi-ethnic cohort of adults with CKD: a cross sectional study in general practice



Hypertension, especially if poorly controlled, is a key determinant of chronic kidney disease (CKD) development and progression to end stage renal disease (ESRD).


To assess hypertension and risk factor management, and determinants of systolic blood pressure control in individuals with CKD and hypertension.

Design and setting

Cross-sectional survey using primary care electronic health records from 47/49 general practice clinics in South London.


Known effective interventions, management of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in patients with CKD Stages 3–5 were investigated. Multivariable logistic regression analysis examined the association of demographic factors, comorbidities, deprivation, and CKD coding, with systolic blood pressure control status as outcome. Individuals with diabetes were excluded.


Adults with CKD Stages 3–5 and hypertension represented 4131/286,162 (1.4%) of the total population; 1984 (48%) of these individuals had undiagnosed CKD without a recorded CKD clinical code. Hypertension was undiagnosed in 25% of the total Lambeth population, and in patients with CKD without diagnosed hypertension, 23.0% had systolic blood pressure > 140 mmHg compared with 39.8% hypertensives, p < 0.001. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that factors associated with improved systolic blood pressure control in CKD included diastolic blood pressure control, serious mental illness, history of cardiovascular co-morbidities, CKD diagnostic coding, and age < 60 years. African ethnicity and obesity were associated with poorer systolic blood pressure control.


We found both underdiagnosed CKD and underdiagnosed hypertension in patients with CKD. The poor systolic blood pressure control in older age groups ≥ 60 years and in Black African or obese individuals is clinically important as these groups are at increased risk of mortality for cardiovascular diseases.

Graphic abstract