New Estimation Formulas for Daily Sodium Intake in Hemodialysis Patients by a Duplicate Portion Method

Excess sodium intake is associated with volume overload and increased blood pressure. Therefore, to prevent future cardiovascular events, a sodium-restricted diet is strongly recommended for patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). However, only one formula for estimating dietary sodium intake in HD patients is available, and its validity has not been adequately evaluated. This study aimed to measure daily sodium intake using the duplicate portion method and provide a new formula for estimating dietary sodium intake.