Acute Kidney Injury After the CAR-T Therapy Tisagenlecleucel

Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapies use genetically engineered T cells to target tumor antigens. In response to antigen recognition, CAR-T cells rapidly expand in number and produce inflammatory cytokines leading to cytokine release syndrome (CRS). CRS is a systemic inflammatory response, on a spectrum with macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)/hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), which can manifest with fever, tachycardia, fatigue, and multiorgan system dysfunction, including acute kidney injury (AKI).